Shalom. Our teaching this morning will be from Exodus 21.15-36.
READ EXODUS 21.1, 15-36
We are continuing with GOD’s Laws that The LORD GOD put before the children of Israel for the Jewish people and in time for all the world to follow. Many of these Laws were centered on criminal law and civil law. Civil law is the body of laws that deal with the rights of private citizens. Criminal law deals with crimes and their punishments.
And The LORD commanded the people to establish courts of law throughout every tribe in various cities and towns. And judges and officers had the responsibility to judge the people with just judgment according to GOD’s Laws which collectively are The Law of Moses. DEUTERONOMY 16.18-20
GOD commanded the people that judgment must be just and lawful according to GOD’s Laws. The judges must not pervert or twist righteous judgment. They must not respect or show favoritism to individuals no matter their status, nor take a bribe, for bribes blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous. The judges must follow that which is altogether just that they may live and inherit the land which The LORD your GOD gives you.
The same applies today for everyone. All mankind should live their lives according to GOD’s Laws and judgments, and teachings that they may live and inherit the land which The LORD their GOD gives them. That land is the Kingdom of Heaven. Matthew 7.21-23.
EXODUS 21.15 The LORD demands honor and respect for our parents as He demands honor and respect for Himself. And hitting our father or mother, GOD says, is punishable by death.
EXODUS 20.12 The word honor in Hebrew is KAHVAHD meaning glorify, glorious, honor, respect, cherish and adore our parents.
DEUTERONOMY 27.16, 26 VERSE 16 Cursed is he that dishonors his father or his mother.
VERSE 26 Cursed is he that does not keep and obey this law to do them.
MATTHEW 13.41-43 VERSE 41 The word offend comes from the Greek word skandalon meaning sin. Sin is breaking The Law of Moses, GOD’s Laws. 1 John 3.4.
The word iniquity comes from the Greek word anomia, meaning transgressing or disobeying The Law of Moses.
VERSE 43 The word righteous in Greek is dikaios Meaning law-abiding. The righteous are the law-abiding, those who obey GOD’s Laws, The Law of Moses. And the righteous shall shine forth as the sun in the Kingdom of their Father. The earth also is the Kingdom of our Father.
EXODUS 21.16 This is GOD’s Law for kidnapping. Those who kidnap others must surely be put to death.
EXODUS 21.17 In GOD’s heart, cursing our father or our mother is the same as murder. That person must surely be put to death. According to Webster’s Dictionary, cursing is an expression of a wish that misfortune, evil, or doom or the like will happen to someone. LEVITICUS 20.9
Let’s talk about the Jewish high court in the days of Yeshua. That high court was the Sanhedrin. The Sanhedrin had supreme religious, political, legislative and judicial authority in the courts. Judicial authority is the judgment of just and lawful verdicts. Legislative authority had to do with the function of making laws throughout the time of Roman rule. Sanhedrin was the name of a Jewish court.
The Sanhedrin was one part Sadducees, and the other part Pharisees. The Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court was abolished in 425 C.E., A.D. years after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 C.E., A.D., and years after the Jewish exile in 70 C.E. The Roman empire fell in 476 C.E., A.D. As a point of information, the Roman empire continued on as the Byzantine empire up to the fall of Constantinople, today’s Istanbul, to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman empire began in 27 B.C.
Thus the Jewish high court in the days of Yeshua was the Sanhedrin. And according to Isaiah 53, Psalm 22, and many other prophecies, it was the Will of GOD to put Messiah Yeshua to death to make His Soul an offering for sin, Isaiah 53.10, for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul, Leviticus 17.11. And it is Yeshua’s blood that makes atonement for everyone who receives Him.
EXODUS 21.18-19 If the injured recovers enough to be able to walk outside, even with a cane, the one who struck him will be free of liability except to compensate the injured for his loss of time, and take responsibility for his care until his recovery is complete.
EXODUS 21.20-21 If the master strikes his male or female servant and the servant dies then and there, the master of the servant must be punished. The court will decide the punishment.
Except if the servant lives for a day or two, the master of the servant is not punished since the servant is his money, or his property. The following is Rabbinic thought on this particular law. “The servant is the master’s property. This means either that the master was in his rights to punish his servant bodily, however, his investment in the servant makes it unlikely that he would have intentionally killed him.” Thus he is not punished.
EXODUS 21.22 If men or others fight, and happen to injure a pregnant woman, and her unborn child dies, and if no harm follows, the person who caused the unborn child to die must be punished and fined. He must pay the amount set by the woman’s husband, and he shall pay as the judges determine.
EXODUS 21.23-25 Punishment is set by the judges according to GOD’s Laws; life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe, or bruise for bruise. GOD’s Laws make punishment for death or injury fit the crime perfectly. Biblical Law, that is GOD’s Laws, The Law of Moses is the same for everybody.
LEVITICUS 24.16-23, NUMBERS 35.31, DEUTERONOMY 19.21
EXODUS 21.26-27 If the servant’s master hits his servant in the eye and destroys it, he must let the servant go free in compensation for the eye.
If he hits his servant and knocks out his tooth, he must let his servant go free in compensation for his servant’s tooth.
EXODUS 21.28 Stoning treats the ox or bull as a criminal because it has killed a human being. The owner is not punished because the accident was not predictable.
But according to Scripture, the accident was an act of GOD. EXODUS 21.13
EXODUS 21.29-31 If however the ox or bull was in the habit of goring people in the past, and its owner was warned and failed to prevent it, and it kills a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned to death, and its owner shall also be put to death.
However, if a payment is demanded from the owner of the murderous bull by the relatives of the dead, he will save his life by paying whatever is demanded.
EXODUS 21.32 If the ox gores and kills a male or female servant, the owner of the ox must pay the master of the servant thirty shekels of silver, and the ox must be stoned to death.
EXODUS 21.33-34 When a man opens a pit or well, or digs one, and does not cover it, and an ox or donkey falls into it and dies, the owner of the open pit must pay for the loss of the animal. He must pay the owner of the dead animal full compensation. And the dead animal belongs to the owner of the well.
EXODUS 21.35-36 When a man’s ox injures the ox of another and it dies, they are to sell the live ox and divide the money from the sale. And they are to divide the dead animal also. Perhaps that means dividing the expenses for the dead animal’s removal.
However, if it was known that the ox had a habit of goring in the past, and its owner did not control it, the owner of the goring ox must pay full compensation for the dead ox. And the dead ox belongs to the owner of the goring ox.
Thus The LORD gave the children of Israel laws to establish a just society based on GOD’s Laws with the focus on doing that which is right and good in the sight of The LORD. DEUTERONOMY 6.17-18, DEUTERONOMY 17.6
It has been asked from time to time, WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF LIFE? The answer is found in DEUTERONOMY 30.20
Our purpose in life is to love The LORD our GOD, and obey His Voice, that is His Word and His Laws, and cling to Him, for He is our life and the length of our days.
And by so doing, we will dwell in the land wherever we may be living, even Las Vegas, and inherit eternity in Heaven with The LORD our GOD Who is Yeshua The Messiah. That is the purpose of our life.
And GOD’s purpose for the Jewish people is also found in The Bible, in The Law and in The New Testament. GOD’s purpose for the Jewish people is to bless the Gentiles. For Messiah said, “SALVATION IF FROM THE JEWS”. How is Salvation from the Jews?
When the Gentiles, and the Jewish people love The LORD their GOD, and obey His His Word and His Laws that He taught the Jewish people in The Bible to do. And cling to The LORD their GOD, for He is their life and the length of their days. And when the Gentiles, and the Jewish people receive and believe in the Jewish Messiah Yeshua Who is The One GOD of Creation, Ha Shem, the promised Messiah to the Jewish people. Doing all that GOD requires. That is how Salvation is received. That is how Salvation, Forgiveness of Sins, and Eternal Life in Heaven is Obtained. By obeying the LORD your GOD. For Salvation is from the Jews. JOHN 4.22.
Shalom, Ira Weinstein